The Kingdom Fungi: The Biology of Mushrooms, Molds, and Lichens

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When viewed closely under the microscope, aerial mycelium contain a spherical structure at the top of the hyphae. These are known as the conidia and sere as the reproductive part of the mold. This part produces spores asexual reproduction that can grow in favorable conditions. Read about Penicillium Microscopy here.

Read more about Mycelium here. Read more about Hyphae here.

Dimorphic fungi exist in the form of mold and yeast. Examples of these fungi include Penicillium marneffei and Mucor circinelloides. Most of these organisms are capable of switching from between the two forms in a process commonly referred to as dimorphic switching. As such, they are viewed as having hyphal threads or as single celled organisms under the microscope yeasts. As mentioned, there are a wide variety across the world that can be found in different habitats.

Depending on the type of fungi, they can be useful and beneficial or present various disadvantages. The following are some of the main benefits and disadvantages:.

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Some of the fungi such as yeast and Candida albicans tend to be pathogenic and cause serious infections to the host man. Fungi have a variety of uses that make them very important. Some of the other uses include:. Pages to learn more about specific types of fungi:. Aspergillus - Characteristics, Types and Morphology.

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Trichoderma - Classification, Characteristics and Reproduction. Pezizomycotina - Habitat, Examples, Classification and Reproduction. Continue to read about Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms as well as Heterotrophs. Return to Microorganisms Main Page. Return to Protists Main Page. Return to Mycology in general main page. Carris, L. Little and C. Introduction to Fungi. The Plant Health Instructor. The role of microfilaments and microtubules. Smith and David Read. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.

The symbionts forming arbuscular mycorrhizas.

[PDF] The Kingdom Fungi: The Biology of Mushrooms, Molds, and Lichens - Semantic Scholar

Amazon and the Amazon logo are trademarks of Amazon. Scientific understanding changes over time. MicroscopeMaster is not liable for your results or any personal issues resulting from performing the experiment. The MicroscopeMaster website is for educational purposes only. Images are used with permission as required. Sep 17, 19 AM. Chlorophyll is perhaps the most important naturally occurring pigment on the planet. Take a look! Read More. Sep 11, 19 PM. Epidermal cells include a layer of cells making up the epidermis of plants with a number of important functions - to protect from a variety of harmful factors.

Sep 06, 19 PM. Guard cells are two bean-shaped cells that surround a stoma and play an important role in gaseous exchange. Home Main New Book! What's New Here! Yoke Mushroom, Zygomycota on Paprika. Basidiomycota cross-section by Doc.

The Kingdom: How Fungi Made Our World

Noteworthy Plants. Biology Fungus Pages. Fungus Flowers. Life Cycle Pages. Kingdom Monera. Kingdom Protista. Kingdom Fungi. Lichen Images. Unknown Fungus Images. D uring my career as a biology professor at Palomar College I have probably had more questions about fungi than any other plant group. Often it is someone calling on the telephone about a strange blob that has suddenly appeared in their backyard--and they are wondering if it is edible, poisonous, or does it pose any threat to their family or house.

Because of the difficulty in identifying strange fungi by a lay person, I usually do not recommend trying them in your favorite culinary recipe. Yellow parasol mushrooms Lepiota lutea. Witches' butter Dacrymyces palmatus : A brightly-colored yellow fungus that grows on moss-covered logs in the rain-soaked Douglas fir forests of Oregon. When it imbibes water, the fungus resembles a blob of melting butter on a log. A striking soil fungus called an "earthstar," so named because the outer wall of the spore-bearing body splits open into a star.

This unusual species was photographed in southern Florida and tentatively identified as Myriostoma coliforme. There are many different species of earth stars throughout North America. Another earthstar called "acrobatic earthstar" Geastrum fornicatum from the chaparral understory in San Diego County.

According to David Arora Mushrooms Demystified , , this species was named Fungus anthropomorphus when first described in because of its uncanny resemblance to a human figure. Like other earthstars, the outer, leathery wall peridium splits open into the rays of a star, but the rays fold down into "legs" that support the spherical spore case that sits on a short stalk or pedicel.

The rays are firmly attached to a clump of mycelium and leaf debris. The current specific epithet "fornicatum" has several meanings, but adultery between unmarried couples doesn't seem appropriate. According to Andrew Marotta personal communication, , fornicatum is derived from "fornix" which refers to an arch.


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Apparently customers of prostitutes commonly went underneath the arched cellars of public buildings. The downward-folded rays "legs" of this fungus form perfect arches. Another metaphor refers to the rays standing on their tips, like a ballet dancer standing on their toes. Two common flies that are attracted to rotting flesh carrion and animal feces: A.

Green bottle fly Phaenicia sericata of the family Calliphoridae. Flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. T he opening photo at the top of this page is Phallus impudicus , a member of the phallus-like stinkhorn family Phallaceae. This is a foul-smelling fungus that attracts flies to its spore-laden, slimy body, thus increasing the odds of its spores being dispersed to new habitats. The fruiting body can appear almost overnight, and may "scent" your entire back yard. In the photo is a flesh fly Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis , a common fly attracted to this fungus. This fungus begins as an egglike body beneath the soil.

An erect phallus-like stalk breaks through the "egg," forming a cuplike basal volva as the stalk rapidly elongates. The swollen "head" or cap is coated with a black, putrid, musilaginous mass of spore slime. Stages in the development of a stinkhorn fungus Phallus impudicus. It begins as a small egglike body beneath the soil which enlarges to the size of a golf ball.

A cluster of stinkhorn fungi Phallus impudicus at the "egg" stage. There are endophytic fungi that live inside plants and help them produce secondary metabolites that deter predation. There are fossils of essentially modern nematophagous fungi in amber from mya.

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